Please, for your fellow developers, break your pull requests apart
We've all been there. You sit down Monday morning, slightly hungover from that Sunday-brunch-that-didn't-really-end. You read the ticket your PM just assigned you. It's... pretty ambiguous.
Add a comments section
What comments section? We don't have comments. You check the design. Ugh. Look at that. An entire forum discussion page has been added to your pet sitting app. You remember some vague conversation happening when you were still fogged over with Covid brain. Maybe an entire design session? Someone had looked at you during that meeting. You had kinda nodded. Was that permission to “OK” this?
Shit, okay. Well, now you need to add a lot more than you bargained for. That's fine. It's fine. You have your design language down. A couple of components your staff engineer whipped together for this occasion. A vague reference to "design patterns" which you swear meant something different.
You crack your knuckles and crank Taylor Swift. You'll need a big discography for this. You start your omo-pomo-doro-noro-doro timer (you saw it on TikTok), and go into the zone.
It's time to code.
git checkout -b comments
15 red bulls later and you lean back.
You're done. It works. Mostly. A few bugs perhaps, but nothing you can't fix later. You've done the impossible once again.
git status68 files changed +68,188 -65
Hmmm. You don't remember touching that many files. You only added new
components, a better Markdown parser, and a new rendering engine for your sick
@mention which you're pretty sure was implied in a conversation you had with
the PM over drinks. You somehow have two
.lock files now. And of course,
comments to a bunch of pages that certainly didn't need them.
Eh, fuck it.
git commit -a -m "Comments"git push origin commentsgh pr create --fill && gh pr merge --auto
Should be fine.
When this happens, I have a plea to you lovely developers:
Please, for the love of your team, break your pull request apart.
There are lots of best practices when it comes to writing Git commits and keeping your changes small. There are guides for writing good commit messages and breaking down features so you can do those things.
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
Get into the habit of making small focused PRs and your teammates will thank you.
But sometimes, things get away from you. It happens to everyone. When you go to look at your changes and realize you wrote too much code. What that limit is will be different for every team. Some teams have a higher tolerance for this. Others don't. As the author of your code, it is your responsibility to make it easy to understand and review.
It is your job to make reviewing code easy.
When a pull request gets to this point, it's fine. It's not uncommon to see a long string of commits as the developer worked their way through the problem. If pull requests are squashed and merged, these commits are thrown away anyway.
But your teammates cannot review a 68,000 line change. Nor should they. It's impossible to get enough context, comb through it carefully enough, and provide the level of review that the code needs.
Feedback needs to be broken into smaller pieces.
Every pull request can be broken apart and applied in pieces. When looking at a massive pull request you should break it down into its fundamental pieces and make PRs for each of those.
Here is a practical guide on how to break apart your pull request.
Understand how you can pull it apart
Take a step back from your feature and understand how you can break it apart. You can:
- Break it apart by layer. For example, the database layer, followed by the model layer, followed by the controller, and followed by the client.
- Break it apart by component. Several individual pieces can each be a separate PR.
- Pull out refactors and other unrelated changes to your main feature.
- Break a larger feature into smaller end-to-end features.
Whichever way you tackle this, your dependencies will need to be merged first, and then code that relies on it comes next.
Once you understand how your feature can be broken apart, it's time to fire up your terminal and do it.
git checkout to pull out files
You can use
git checkout to pull specific files out of a feature branch into
a new one. It helps if your feature branch is up to date with
main, if not,
you'll need to resolve any merge conflicts each time you pull things out.
git checkout main # make sure you are main, git pull for latestgit checkout -b feature-subsetgit checkout comments -- path/to/files other/pathsgit commit -m "Add subset of feature" # Then push, PR.
This method pulls out entire files. You can use:
git checkout --patch comments -- path/to/files
To use the
patch interface to only apply parts of a file. This gives you a lot
of control over which sections you want to pull out and move into separate pull
Peer into changes with
If you want to see what the differences are you are about to pull out, you can
git diff between branches.
git diff feature-subset...ethanmick/big-pr-branch
You can use the same syntax as
git checkout to only look at a subset of
git diff feature-subset...ethanmick/big-pr-branch -- path/to/files other/paths
If you're in that deep and get the right subset of files, you can pipe it into
git apply to apply the diff to your current branch.
Pull out commits
If you were writing good commits the entire time you probably would not be reading this post. Asking a reviewer to step through your changes commit by commit is sometimes a reasonable ask, so it's clear how a large change has been built up.
Another great use case for this is when making a large change you find a piece of code you want to refactor. If it isn't related to your larger change you can commit and put the refactor into a single commit. Then you can pull it out, make a separate PR for it, and rebase later.
If you have some solid commits that you want to pull out you can cherry-pick the commit.
Cherry Pick a Commit
Cherry-picking pulls a single commit
The Git docs say:
Given one or more existing commits, apply the change each one introduces, recording a new commit for each.
# On a feature branchgit add files/in/refactor -m "Refactor a widget"# Later, back on maingit checkout -b small-refactorgit cherry-pick sha256
Using the Git hash of the commit containing the refactor.
You can also commit or stash your current changes and create a new branch of
main to do the refactor.
Be a good teammate
It's frustrating to get to the end of a feature and have more work to get through the review process. When the feature works (mostly) and the code is good (mostly), it can feel like you are now jumping through hoops to get it merged in. It's very important to keep a project's code in good shape and that is everyone on the team's job. The reviewers want high-quality code and so do the developers. It benefits everyone to have a high standard of code and make sure it is kept there.
When asked to break apart a larger PR, it's done to ensure the code is reviewed and understood thoroughly. It's a learning moment for everyone on the team.
More frequent, smaller, pull requests are more efficient. The developers learn faster from smaller and more focused reviews. There is a feeling of velocity and movement when the code is merged in. Feature flags can be used to ensure unfinished sections are not shown to customers. It creates a better atmosphere for shipping code.
Do your team a favor. Break apart your massive pull requests.